Sebastian Deterding is a researcher and UX designer who works on Persuasive Design and Gamification for digital media.
In his work, Deterding discuses and talks about how to apply Persuasive Design strategies whether for Web Design or new technologies, how play and motivation can be used to change bad behaviours, he also highlights the morality of persuasion and how sometimes it can be misused to dominate a society or have a reverse effect on a user by time.
In this particular presentation, Deterding explains what Persuasive Design is about and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that there are three main things that influence people into performing a behaviour; their attitude, subjective norms towards the behaviour, and how much control they think they have over that behaviour. It’s a theory about the link between beliefs and behaviours.
Deterding argues that usability alone can’t persuade people to use your product or website, but it also has to motivate people. He introduces three strategies to changing human behaviour; Motivation, Constraints, Facilitation.
Constraint Strategy is to “limit possible behaviour and exclude unwanted behaviours”
for example, putting metal fences between two roads to restrict people from crossing the road and direct them to use a pedestrian bridge instead.
Facilitation Strategy is to “ease the translation between the user’s intensions into behaviours and habits”
continuing with the pedestrian bridge example, clearly showing directions to the pedestrian bridge, and adding an escalator to make it easier for the elderly to use the bridge.
Motivation Strategy is divided into 3 sub strategies; Tangential Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation
Tangential Motivation is to “satisfy motives not directly related to the behaviour”
Intrinsic Motivation is when “an activity is in and of itself motivating “
Extrinsic Motivation is using “external incentives to motivate the intended behaviour”
Applying these strategies straight away might not yield any changes in behaviour, it’s not that easy! A prior understanding of the behaviour and what influences it will help you choose a suitable design strategy(ies) to use.